Econcult: Area of Research in Economics of Culture and Tourism

UNITED KINGDOM: RECENT MIGRATION SUGGESTS A SUBSTANTIAL BRAIN GAIN

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UNITED KINGDOM: RECENT MIGRATION SUGGESTS A SUBSTANTIAL BRAIN GAIN
Download PDFType: Book section
Libro: Brain Drain – Brain Gain: European Labour Markets in Times of Crisis
Publisher: Alexander Schellinger (Ed.). FRIEDRICH-EBERT-STIFTUNG
First page: 22
Last page: 32
Keywords: Brain circulation, fair play, brain gain, polices, foreigners,

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Concluding Remarks

The United Kingdom is seen externally as a net »receiver of brains«, as well as a country that is capable of managing its beneficial position with regard to talent flows so as not to take excessive advantage by abusing its dominant position to attract and retain talent from emerging countries. In fact, the United Kingdom has developed many initiatives that promote or enhance »brain circulation« to developing economies.

3.3.1
CARRY ON »FAIR PLAY« POLICIES ON »BRAIN CIRCULATION«
While the highest proportion of highly skilled immigrants is from non-EU countries, the trend has been diminishing. However, this may respond more to restrictive immigration policies than to goodwill with regard to »brain circulation«. Further analysis should be carried out to split the figures between non-EU countries and identify »brain gain« from emerging economies. Certainly, these policies would carry more benefits than the »warm glow« of having behaved properly and the positive externalities of re-emigration will affect the United Kingdom, too. Skilled individuals who return to their home countries have established links with the United Kingdom that may be beneficial for business and culture.
3.3.2
IMPROVE POST-EDUCATIONAL »BRAIN GAIN« POLICIES
The non-European student population is the most important in terms of inflow of migrants for study reasons. Once these students graduate, they might decide to stay in the country if the regulations allow it. Obviously, this will be allowed if they qualify for a Tier 2 (General) visa or a Tier 1 (Graduate Entrepreneur) visa, which they could obtain without having to leave the country, or a Tier 5 temporary worker visa, which obliges the graduate to leave the country in order to apply for it. Regardless of the situation, it seems a waste of resources having managed to attract a »brain« to treat it as a »new brain«.
Although the numbers still put the United Kingdom in a net situation, the trend in terms of non-EU students is increasing, as is that of emigration (outflow). Using a marketing metaphor, businesses know that retaining a customer is cheaper than acquiring a new one. This certainly applies to the retention of foreigners who graduated in the United Kingdom. To obtain a position in a labour market, it is essential not only to have the required academic and technical skills but to be aware of the culture. Social and professional networks should also facilitate successful labour market integration. […]

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