The internationalization of Spanish cultural and creative industries
The effects of the economic crisis that has been dragging Spain along with the other peripheral economies of southern Europe for the last five years are devastating our productive fabric, including the cultural and creative industries (CCI), which was one of the most dynamic and dynamic sectors of our economy in the years prior to the crisis. The fall in domestic consumption, the difficulties in accessing financing and private investment markets, the dismantling of the public aid system, and the increases in tax burdens, together with other knock-on effects (business relocation, evasion of human capital, stagnation in the growth of access to digital networks) present a dark panorama that the CCI sector must face. But not all the picture is so black. One of the mainstays of the Spanish economy has to do with its export capacity and the role it plays in international trade. The Spanish economy as a whole has maintained its market share in international trade despite the crisis, thanks to the type of specialization of its exports, the persistence of some positive factors in the field of communication and information technologies and the highly qualified profile of our creative human capital. This reality can be transferred to the framework of internationalization of cultural and creative activities. Indeed, the fall of the domestic market, especially in the case of cultural consumer goods and services, both derived from private and public demand, is an obvious push factor towards internationalization. This study presents an analysis of the different variables affecting CCIs in the context of a global market, trying to determine their potential for internationalization. We start from data that has a great weight in our economy: the CCIs reached 5.6% of GVA at national level and 6.3% of employment in 2008. But we also start from the premise that we have an outdated system that responds to an obsolete reality, based on analogical exchanges. The same is true of public policies. We believe that both regulations and policies must radically change their approach.